Theodor Hertzl, promoter of the first Zionist Congresses and ideologist of the creation of a Jewish State, describes in his novel The Old New Land (1902) an imaginary future (1923) during national elections. There is a debate about the right to universal vote, including women and Arabs. One of the heroes is Rashid Bey, an Arab engineer from Haifa. The book describes how the discriminatory practices of Europe would not have a stand in the new society. Moreover, at present, the majority of the Israeli Arabs (73%) feel part of the Jewish state and 60% is proud to be Israeli, according to a survey by the New Wave Research Institute (2017). What did the dominant socialist Zionists have to say? They advocated for a just society based on a proletarian class, of which the Arabs would be an inseparable part. Indeed, the great men of Zionism were more interested in finding a refuge for the persecuted Jews that thinking about what could happen in a second instance (for example, Theodor Hertzl or Leon Pinsker) The dominant ideologists of Jewish nationalism (right-wing), such as Zeev Jabotinsky, wrote that in all societies there are national minorities that coexist, and his ideal was “a state with a Jewish president and an Arab Vicepresident” (Jabotinsky was one of the writers of the Program for the Defense of National Minorities, 1901).
The Declaration of Independence of Israel (1948) clearly states: WE APPEAL – in the very midst of the onslaught launched against us now for months – to the Arab inhabitants of the State of Israel to preserve peace and participate in the upbuilding of the State on the basis of full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions”. Those were not just words, it is the foundational document of the State of Israel.