After being expelled from Jordan in 1979 (“Black September”), the PLO set their base in Lebanon, creating an independent zone, Fatahland (Land of the PLO), from where they attacked Israel. Lebanon was suffering from a long history of religious confrontations between Maronite Christians and Muslims, in a political system that maintained a delicate ethnic equilibrium. It all came down in 1975 in a bloody civil war, plagued with mutual massacres that resulted in an important Christian emigration. During the 1978-1981 period, there was an increase in the military attacks from the south of Lebanon to Israel. The most renowned were the attacks to the coastal road (Mar/3/1978), the assassinations of Naharia (Apr/12/1979) and the attack to the daycare center of Kibbutz Misgav Am (Apr/7/1980). The PLO also attacked in other countries. On Oct/20/1981, a car-bomb exploded in the Synagogue of Ambers (Belgium). In April 1981, an Israeli diplomat was murdered in Paris. The previous military operation in Lebanon (Litani, 1978) could not eliminate or distance the PLO bases of the south of Lebanon, from where they launched Katyusha rockets against Israeli civilians. The situation was being exploited by Syria to increase its dominium over a country it considered indivisible from Great Syria. Syria installed missile bases in the center of Lebanon, supporting Muslims from there. The PLO, previously confronted with Syria, now had Israel as a common enemy, who publicly supported the Maronites led by Bashir Gemayel. The Israel-Maronite alliance had consolidated during the 70s decade, especially during 1975, when Israel allowed the passage of Maronite workers to Israeli territory via “the Good Fence”. This is why the main goal of Israel was to eliminate or weaken the base from where terrorist attacks were made against its civilians.