Pan-Arabism was mortally wounded during the 70s and continued its descent later. If you watch closely, the emerging powers in the Middle East are not Arab (Turkey and Iran). The only one that stands out is Qatar (because of its oil, gas and Al-Jazeera) Pan-Arabism fell after the defeat of Egypt-Nasser in 1967 and the signature of the bilateral peace treaty between Sadat and Israel. The leader of Pan-Arabism (Egypt) was expelled from the Arab League in 1985. The ideology that replaced Pan-Arabism was Pan-Islamism, in force at present. Pan-Islamism is a political idea that seeks the union of all Muslims in an Islamic State or caliphate. It is believed that the expression “union of Muslims” was used for the first time in 1872 by the writer and political activist of the Ottoman Youth, Namik Kamil. While Pan-Arabism seeks unity and independence of the Arabs regardless of their religion, Pan-Islamism advocates for union and independence of Muslims under the law of Shaarya. The Islamic radical forces have done profound fieldwork since the end of World War I. During the 70s-80s two factors moved ideologists to complement the Dawa (social action and propaganda) with the Jihad (holy war and physical force). Besides the ideological influence of Sayd Qutb, the radicals witnessed how their pairs in Iran took over power in 1979. If the Shiites could do it, many thought, so could the Sunni. The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (1981) was influenced by the Shiite revolution. The second fact was the expulsion of Russian imperialism from Afghanistan by the Taliban during the 80s. If the Taliban Muslims could, they all could, so they thought.
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