After the coup that led Nasser into office in Egypt (1954), he signed a peace arms deal with Czechoslovakia in September 1955. Egypt wanted to exceed the military power of Israel and the Soviet Union (through Czechoslovakia) and to have a way into the Middle East. According to the deal, Egypt would receive 200 heavy and medium tanks, hundreds of artillery pieces, 150 war aircraft, which gave them a quantity advantage over Israel. Israel did not have the resources to acquire weaponry but they knew they should give Nasser a preventive blow before his army learned how to use their new weaponry. After 1949, the Arabs adopted a “war doctrine of limited liability”. According to this doctrine, the aggressors may reject an agreement and participate in a war to win, knowing that, even if they fail, they can insist on reestablishing the previous status quo. In 1956, Nasser was the one who threatened with starting a war.
In mid-1956, Nasser violated once again the Armistice Agreement (1949) by closing the Strait of Tiran to Israeli ships (under international law, blocking navigation is an act of war), limiting Israel’s access through the sea. On October 25th, 1956, Egypt signed a three-way agreement with Syria and Jordan that allowed Nasser to rule over the three armies. The blockage of the Suez Canal and of Tiran to Israeli navigation, together with the increase in the attacks from the Fedayeen and the aggressions of the Arabs, forced Israel to attack Egypt with the support of Great Britain and France on Oct/29/1956. At the same time, England and France carried out the Musketeer Operation to dominate the Suez Canal, even though their military participation was close to nothing.