The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany was signed in Sept/10/1952, establishing that Germany would pay Israel the costs of “resettling so great a number of uprooted and destitute Jewish refugees” after the war. They would compensate them individually through the Conference on Jewish Material Claims against Germany because of the loss of Jewish properties as a result of the Nazi persecution. The money was essential during the economic anguish that Israel was living (Tzena). The unemployment was high, especially in the Maavarot (transitory camps) and the reserve of foreign currency was limited. Nahum Goldmann, President of the Jewish World Congress, had been negotiating with Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of Germany. Part of Israel’s population considered it humiliating to accept German money (their leader was Menachem Begin). Ben-Gurion and his party’s (Mapai) position was pragmatic: “There are two approaches”, he said to the central committee of Mapai. “One of them is the ghetto Jewish approach and the other is an independent people approach. I don’t want to chase a German and spit him in the face. I don’t want to chase anybody. I want to settle and build here”. Israel bought machinery and infrastructure that were essential for that time. The business people calculated that because the absorption had cost 3,000 dollars per person, then 1.5 billion dollars was owed to Israel (14.5 billion currently). They also thought that the Nazis had stolen 6 billion dollars in Jewish property, but they underlined that the Germans could never compensate what they did with any type of material compensation. The German Parliament (Bundestag) approved the agreement on Mar/18/1953 by a majority: 239 in favor and 35 against. In Israel, the opposition to the traumatic agreement reunited 15,000 people in Jerusalem (Jan/7/1952). However, the decision was accepted by 61 to 50 votes in the Knesset).