Relations between the State of Israel and the Soviet Union ceased in 1967 after the Six-Day War and were reinstated 24 years later, in October 1991. Traditionally, the Soviet Union, as a power with interests in the Middle East and within the framework of the Cold War, has systematically defended its interests by providing military, financial and political support to the Arab countries, hostile towards Israel. The same support has been received by the Palestinians. At the start of the 90s decade, Israel and Russia enjoyed renewed relations. It must be considered that the founding fathers of Israel came especially from the ex-Soviet Union. Currently, over a million citizens of the extinct Soviet Union live in Israel, many of them from Russia. It is the largest Russian-speaking diaspora in the world. Under the leadership of Putin (elected in 2000), Russia became a friend of Israel, and at the same time, it is one of the countries that contributes largely to the instability in the Middle East. On one side, it stands out for its military and political support to Arab countries and to organizations considered by Israel and the West as terrorist organizations. For example, during the Second Lebanon War, most of the rockets launched by Hezbollah were made in Russia. Furthermore, Russia was the first country to recognize the regime of Hamas in the Gaza Strip and its representatives were invited to Moscow for an official visit. On the other hand, Russia coordinated with Israel its attacks on Syrian lands (against Iran) to avoid the death of Russian soldiers. Given this situation, Russia lacks the capacity to pressure and reward Palestinians and Israelis, and its mediation capacity is low.